The very far future of the Universe


Future of humanity

Key.svg Years from now Event
technology and culture 10,000 Most probable estimated lifespan of technological civilization, according to Frank Drake‘s original formulation of the Drake equation.
Biology 10,000 If globalization trends lead to panmixia, human genetic variation will no longer be regionalized, as the effective population size will equal the actual population size. (This does not mean homogeneity, as minority traits will still be preserved, e.g., no disappearing blonde gene, but will rather be evenly distributed worldwide.)
Mathematics 10,000 Humanity has a 95% probability of being extinct by this date, according to Brandon Carter‘s formulation of the controversial Doomsday argument, which argues that half of the humans who will ever have lived have probably already been born.
technology and culture 20,000 According to the glottochronology linguistic model of Morris Swadesh, future languages should retain just 1 out of 100 “core vocabulary” words on their Swadesh list compared to that of their current progenitors.
Geology and planetary science 100,000+ Time required to terraform Mars with an oxygen-rich breathable atmosphere, using only plants with solar efficiency comparable to the biosphere currently found on Earth.
Technology and culture 1 million Estimated shortest time by which humanity could colonize our Milky Way galaxy and become capable of harnessing all the energy of the galaxy, assuming a velocity of 10% the speed of light.
Biology 2 million Vertebrate species separated for this long will generally undergo allopatric speciation. Evolutionary biologist James W. Valentine predicted that if humanity has been dispersed among genetically isolated space colonies over this time, the galaxy will host an evolutionary radiation of multiple human species with a “diversity of form and adaptation that would astound us”. (This would be a natural process of isolated populations, unrelated to potential deliberate genetic enhancement technologies.)
Mathematics 7.8 million Humanity has a 95% probability of being extinct by this date, according to J. Richard Gott‘s formulation of the controversial Doomsday argument, which argues that we have probably already lived through half the duration of human history.
technology and culture 5–50 million Shortest time by which the entire galaxy could be colonised by means within reach of current technology.
technology and culture 100 million Maximal estimated lifespan of technological civilization, according to Frank Drake‘s original formulation of the Drake equation.
Astronomy and astrophysics 1 billion Estimated time for an astroengineering project to alter the Earth’s orbit, compensating for the Sun’s increasing brightness and outward migration of the habitable zone, accomplished by repeated asteroid gravity assists.

[Via: wikipedia]

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